Clinical practice guidelines for mild traumatic brain injury and persistent symptoms

Clinical practice guidelines for mild traumatic brain injury and persistent symptoms

Head injuries can often lead to someone experiencing concussion. Your employer has a legal obligation to ensure that the ‘Noise at work 1989’ guidelines are implemented and to ensure that safety measures are in place to protect your hearing. In order to understand the condition better, the researchers conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI scans, in order to understand how tinnitus can affect the brain’s ability to process thoughts and emotions in a person. If your treatment was carried out abroad, we can obtain and, if need be, translate those records. We will strive to get you the maximum compensation you deserve, to bring you peace of mind following the trauma of an accident or injury. If a woman gets rubella while she is pregnant, she could have a miscarriage or her baby could be born with serious birth defects. You’ll pay no up front fees.

The diagnostic criteria for MTBI are outlined in Box 1.1 Mild traumatic brain injury, also commonly referred to as mild head injury or concussion, is one of the most common neurologic disorders occurring today and is gaining increasing public awareness particularly through concussion-in-sport prevention initiatives2 as well as media attention on military blast injuries.3 Recently, a study examining both hospital-treated cases of MTBI and those presenting to family physicians calculated the incidence of MTBI in Ontario to be between 493 and 653 per 100 000 people.4 While it is expected that in most cases patients who experience MTBI will fully recover within days or months, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention note that “up to 15% of patients diagnosed with MTBI may have experienced persistent disabling problems.”5 Although these cases represent a minority of patients, given the high incidence of MTBI, this potentially translates to a substantial number of individuals. Once a settlement has been agreed, solicitors working on a no win no fee basis will usually charge a success fee and ATE insurance premium. TBIs are also often classified as open (penetrating injury) or closed head injuries (e.g., stroke, brain tumor, effects of substance abuse, infection, poisoning, etc). The table titled “Evaluation of Cognitive Impairment and Other Residuals of TBI Not Otherwise Classified” contains 10 important facets of TBI related to cognitive impairment and subjective symptoms. The study concluded that a clear need existed for systematically developed practice recommendations to guide health care professionals in the identification and management of patients who experience persistent symptoms following MTBI. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Injuries and medical conditions categorised as catastrophic or serious range from radiation exposure to serious psychiatric harm.

The symptoms do not meet criteria for dementia due to head trauma and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder (eg, amnestic disorder due to head trauma, personality change due to head trauma). Appellant experienced a ringing in his ears and a mild earache. With repetitive or excessive movement of the hand, the lubrication system may malfunction. The scope of the guidelines does not include penetrating brain injuries, birth injuries, brain damage from stroke or other cerebrovascular accidents, shaken baby syndrome, or moderate to severe brain injuries. Post-concussion syndrome is the most common manifestation of disorder to be diagnosed in people who have suffered mild brain injuries with the annual incidence being around 150 cases per 100,000 people, accounting for no less than 75% of all recorded cases of injuries to the head. Interferon beta-1a pens, prefilled syringes are for injection into a muscle. The guidelines will be helpful to various health care professionals, including family physicians, neurologists, physiatrists, psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and nurses.

Development of the guidelines was led by a team composed of clinicians with substantial experience in treating MTBI as well as past experience in developing CPGs. The project team convened an MTBI Expert Consensus Group. However, major damage to the head and brain can result in compensation that is upwards of £20,000. Then, a “fence” of 25 decibels is deducted because, according to audiometric standards, average losses below 25 decibels result in no change in the ability to hear everyday speech under everyday listening conditions. Suffer with buzzing or ringing sounds also known as Tinnitus? 1. Central APD.

The members of the expert consensus group were recruited from across Canada and abroad. The Practice Guidelines Evaluation and Adaptation Cycle12 was used as the model for development, and the first step taken was to search for and review existing guidelines addressing MTBI in order to identify high-quality recommendations that could be adapted to minimize repetition of previously completed work. A comprehensive search for existing CPGs published in English or French within the past 10 years (1998 to 2008) that were relevant to traumatic brain injury and that included recommendations for the care of individuals with mild injuries was undertaken. This was conducted using bibliographic databases (eg, Cochrane Library, National Guidelines Clearing House), MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and a general Web search, as well as searches of websites of relevant organizations (eg, Canadian Medical Association, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). Twenty-three guidelines were identified. These were screened, and guidelines found to be more than 10 years old, those that did not address MTBI, those that were reviews only and that did not include practice recommendations, those that only addressed prehospital or acute care, and those that only addressed pediatric care were excluded from further review. Thanks for posting this feedback Neuromonics – is interesting for long-term treatment of this particular perspective.

The next step was to conduct a systematic literature search in order to capture all published research evaluating the effectiveness of treatments or interventions intended to prevent or manage persistent symptoms following MTBI. A comprehensive systematic review conducted by Borg and colleagues20 was relied upon for literature published up to 2001, therefore requiring an updated search of the MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases for the period extending from 2001 to 2008. There were 9435 results obtained from MEDLINE and 8432 results obtained from PsycINFO. These were reviewed by 2 independent reviewers, and 36 met the criteria for inclusion. Because very few guidelines on the management of symptoms following MTBI were found, a second search was completed for CPGs and systematic reviews that addressed the management of common symptoms (eg, insomnia) in the general population. Although these guidelines do not include recommendations specific to managing symptoms within an MTBI population, they do provide some general direction on how to best treat symptoms that commonly persist following MTBI. The procedures used to identify these CPGs and reviews were similar to those described above.
Clinical practice guidelines for mild traumatic brain injury and persistent symptoms

The categories of symptoms for which CPGs were developed outside of the traumatic brain injury field, and from which recommendations were extracted, included cognitive dysfunction (n = 1), fatigue (n = 1), mood disorders (n = 4), and sleep disorders (n = 4). The expert consensus group convened at a conference where they attended presentations on the methodologic factors critical to the development of evidence-based, best-practice care and were presented with the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) instrument rating scores for existing traumatic brain injury guidelines, the results of the systematic reviews of the literature, and the summary of recommendations and levels of evidence extracted from existing guidelines. In addition, the topics of definition, prognosis, and risk factors were also discussed. Attendees then worked in groups to adapt high-quality recommendations extracted from existing guidelines and to generate new recommendations based on current research and clinical expertise. The group drafted 152 initial guideline recommendations. Final recommendations were produced using a modified Delphi process.21 A vote was taken at the conference after all initial recommendations had been presented. This can lead to a misunderstanding that symptoms people are experiencing are psychological.

A recommendation was retained for inclusion if it met at least 1 of the following criteria: it was based on grade A evidence, it received either a minimum of 10 votes or 75% endorsement by the expert consensus group, or it represented an important care issue (ie, addressed a topic relevant to a large proportion of the MTBI population and clearly represented a current gap in treatment guidance). After applying these criteria, 71 recommendations remained and these comprise the current guideline. The following system was used for grading levels of evidence and was applied to the guideline recommendations: grade A evidence included at least 1 randomized controlled trial, meta-analysis, or systematic review; grade B evidence included at least 1 cohort comparison, case study, or other type of experimental study; grade C evidence included expert opinion or the experience of a consensus panel. A draft of the guideline was circulated to recognized experts in the field who did not participate in the development process. The external reviewers were asked to provide input about the validity and relevance of the guideline. This feedback was incorporated into the final draft. The Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation is developing an MTBI strategy to improve care across the population, with one subcommittee focused on the evaluation and implementation of these guidelines.

Particular barriers to implementation include the multiple clinical settings in which individuals present after MTBI. For example, given the symptom spectrum, patients might be seen in the emergency setting, a family physician’s office, or a specialist setting, including neurology, physiatry, psychiatry, or otolaryngology. The evaluation process will include a pilot test of the guideline recommendations. Feedback from front-line clinicians and their patients during the pilot implementation phase, as well as findings from an ongoing literature review, will inform the update of these recommendations scheduled for 2012. As mentioned previously, other CPGs address the care of individuals who have experienced MTBI. There are guidelines that focus on traumatic brain injury in general, but which provide some recommendations addressing mild injuries.15,16,18 Also, recent guidelines have been developed that focus specifically on MTBI.13,14,17,19,40,42 When work began on our guidelines, only the earlier version of the Concussion in Sport Group guidelines19 and the guidelines from New South Wales,13 the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Centre,14 and the Ontario Workplace Safety and Insurance Board17 had been published. However, aside from the clinical guidance document from the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Centre (which is not a formal guideline), the other pre-existing guidelines offered little to no guidance on the care of persistent symptoms.

The Veterans Affairs–Department of Defense guideline42 was published in 2009, when development of our guidelines was well under way, and has independently taken a similar approach to creating guidelines addressing persistent symptoms following MTBI in order to fill the current lack of direction for clinicians in managing this challenging patient population. But, as noted, the Veterans Affairs–Department of Defense guideline was developed for use with military personnel with a focus on blast injury and management within the military medical infrastructure. Our guidelines are constrained by the paucity of supporting evidence in most of the topic areas for which recommendations for practice were considered necessary and relevant. This constraint necessitated a heavy reliance on practice recommendations and clinician resources developed for other clinical populations (eg, headache, sleep disorder), as opposed to MTBI patients specifically. To report side effects to the appropriate agency, please read the Guide to Reporting Problems to FDA. A further limitation or challenge is the ongoing controversy and debate surrounding the pathogenesis of postconcussional disorder or postconcussion syndrome. Despite evident dysfunction and disability occurring frequently after injury, health care providers and funders have emphasized the issue of validation of the diagnosis and issues of potential secondary gain,7,43,44 as MTBI has generally been perceived as a self-limiting and nondisabling condition.

The expert consensus group agreed it would be most beneficial for clinicians to focus on the development of guidance for management of PPCS following MTBI, emphasizing a symptom-based approach as opposed to deliberating diagnostic criteria. Face Injury Extremely Severe £15,350 – £73,150 Facial disfigurement and scarring might warrant somewhere in this range of injury compensation. The consensus group could not formally endorse either the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnosis of postconcussional disorder or the International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of postconcussion syndrome. There are a variety of causes of MTBI, such as sports-related injury, motor vehicle accidents, blast injury, work-related injury, and falls. Evidence suggests sport-related MTBI has a lower incidence of persistent symptoms compared with other traumatic causes; however, the reason for this is unknown. In contrast, other causes, such as falls and motor vehicle collisions, are more likely to result in multiple trauma including fractures and internal organ injury or substantial emotional reactions to unanticipated injury, which might predispose patients to acute and posttraumatic stress disorders. The effect of factors related to more complex presentations remains a knowledge gap.

The current guidelines are intended to fill a gap in delivery of care and to serve as a resource for clinicians who encounter patients with MTBI with the intent of either preventing symptoms from becoming chronic or minimizing the effects of PPCS. Further research is required both to improve the evidence for provision of care for MTBI and PPCS and to identify the best methods for uptake and implementation of guidelines that span multiple types of health care professionals and health care settings. We thank the MTBI Expert Consensus Group (Markus Bessemann, MD, FRCPC, DipSportMed, LCol; Angela Colantonio, PhD; Paul Comper, PhD, CPsych; Nora Cullen, MD, MSc, FRCPC; Anne Forrest, PhD; Jane Gillett, MD, FRCPC; John Gladstone, MD, FRCPC; Wayne Gordon, MD, PhD, ABPP/CN, FACRM; Elizabeth Inness, MSc; Grant Iverson, PhD, Rpsych; Corinne Kagan; Vicki Kristman, PhD; John Kumpf; Andrea LaBorde, MD; Shayne Ladak, MD, CSCS NASM-CPT; Sue Lukersmith, OT; Willie Miller, MD, FRCPC; Alain Ptito, PhD, OPQ; Laura Rees, PhD, CPsych; Jim Thompson, MD, CCFP(EM), FCFP; and Rob van Reekum, MD, FRCPC) and the external reviewers (Erin Bigler, PhD; Anthony Feinstein, MB BCh, MPhil, PhD, FRCPC, MRCPsych; Paul Mendella, PhD, CPsych; Jennie Ponsford, PhD; Mark Rapoport, MD, FRCPC; and Andree Tellier, PhD, CPsych). We also thank John Gladstone for authoring the guidance on assessment and management of posttraumatic headache. The Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation initiated and funded the development of the guidelines. More information about each of the ears (tinnitus); They have gone through the use of an airplane to your doctor, then it is important. Persistent symptoms following MTBI might occur in 10% to 15% of patients and can include posttraumatic headache, sleep disturbance, disorders of balance, cognitive impairments, fatigue, and mood disorders.

Persistent postconcussive symptoms can result in functional disability, stress, and time away from work or school. These guidelines address the fact that to date, other than for sport concussion, little information and direction has been available to physicians to manage recovery from MTBI. 42. The Management of Concussion/mTBI Working Group . VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for management of concussion/mild traumatic brain injury. Washington, DC: Department of Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense; 2009.